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Growing Cherries (Cherry Trees)

Photo of cherries hanging on a cherry tree.

A cherry tree is a great addition to your yard. Fresh cherries make great snacks and can be frozen for use throughout the year. This is a guide about growing cherry trees.

     

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Article: Growing: Cherries (Cherry Trees)

Cherries on Tree

Planting Tips:

Cherry trees grow well in most zones. Although if you want to get more technical, tart cherries thrive best in zones 4-9, and sweet cherries grow best in zones 5-9. Bush cherries (somewhat sweet) are hardy enough for zone 3. Thanks to modern plant breeding, there are now self-pollinating cultivars and dwarf root-stocks of both tart and sweet cherry trees. Whether your preference is tart or sweet, select a healthy, disease-resistant tree cultivated for your zone. Expect standard-sized trees to start bearing fruit in their fourth year (30 to 50 quarts), and dwarf-sized trees to produce fruit in their third year (10 to 15 quarts).

Site Preparation:

Plant trees or bushes in a sunny site with good air circulation and average to rich, well-drained soil. They prefer a soil pH of between 6.0 and 6.8 (slightly acidic). Avoid low areas where frost and standing water can be a problem (especially for sweet types) or sites where cherries, peaches or plums have grown previously. Wild choke-cherries should be located well away from your intended site.

Planting:

Cherry trees should be planted in the early spring (zones 4-6) or fall. All purchased cherry trees come grafted on a rootstock, and the type of rootstock it's grafted on will determine its performance, size and how deep it's planted. Consult with the nursery to determine exact planting specifications for the type you buy. Generally speaking, when spacing trees for planting, allow for a distance of 20 to 30 feet in every direction around a standard-sized sweet cherry tree; dwarf trees 8 to 12 feet. Tart cherry trees should be planted about 15 to 20 feet apart. Mulch trees around the base, leaving 4-5 inches next to the trunk bare.

Care & Maintenance:

Semi-dwarf and standard-size sweet cherry trees should be trained to have a central leader shape (one main trunk with many side branches-like apple trees). Tart cherry trees seem to respond better to a modified leader structure (an open center with evenly spaced side branches-like peach trees). Trees should be pruned annually in late winter while they are in their dormant state. Apply fertilizer in the spring until fruit sets and after harvest annually. Check trees for common disease and fruit pests in the spring and fall.

Harvesting & Storage:

Harvest cherries, stem on fruit, when they are fully ripe. Avoid damaging the spur (point of attachment) or you may damage next year's cherry. Fruit will be dark red, black or yellow depending on the variety. The sugar content in the fruit rises in the last few days of ripening so it's worth the wait. Fresh cherries will keep up to a week in your refrigerator, up to three in slightly cooler (31 to 32F) temperatures.

By Ellen Brown

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Questions

Here are questions related to Growing Cherries (Cherry Trees).

Question: Cherry Trees Not Bearing Fruit

My trees are not bearing fruit; why?

By Glenda


Most Recent Answer

By DeBushe06/10/2013

Cherry trees need partner trees in order to cross pollenate to bear fruit. Ask someone at your local nursery about this.

Question: Growing Cherry Trees

Will cherry trees grow in either Parklands or Table View which are suburbs in the Western Cape, South Africa?

By Bruce

Question: Rainier Cherry Tree Not Setting Fruit

I purchased two and got fruit the second year. Now this year one tree has flowered, and is bearing fruit, the other seems to have stopped just after it started to bud. The tree is soft and flexible. It was watered and treated just like the other tree, but one gets a lot more sun, the spring season here in NJ is off to a slow start. What do you think?

By themachinewon

Question: Pruning Cherry Trees

When is a good time to trim a cherry tree?

By Dale


Best Answer

By cooleen10/18/2011

I do mine just around when the leaves fall. They are tricky, and get rot easily, though. If you have a cooperative extension nearby, get in touch with them for more advice.

Question: Water Requirements for Sweet Cherry Trees

I need to know the gallons per hour watering needs for sweet cherry trees.

Hardiness Zone: 9a

By Betsy from Bangor, CA


Most Recent Answer

By kathleen williams04/17/2010

Trees will need regular watering during their first year. It is important for root development that the tree receives plenty of water. After the first year, water as you would other fruit trees. Organic mulch around the base of tree will keep the soil from drying out and also help to control the growth of weeds. Good luck.

Question: Cherries Drying Up On Tree

Question:

We have had a Rainier cherry tree for several years. It is always full of blossoms and cherries. Then the little green cherries dry up and fall off. What would you suggest is the cause? Thank you.

Mrs. Mitchell

Answer:

Ms. Mitchell,

Is the drying up and shriveling confined only to the fruits, or are some of the leaves and branches affected, too? Has your cherry tree ever successfully produced cherries? There are many possibilities here, so let's start at the beginning and play the process of elimination game.

If your tree has produced a successful crop in the past, you may be witnessing a phenomenon called Cherry Run Off. What happens is that every few years the tree produces more fruit than it can support so it drops the cherries prematurely in order to conserve energy. This type of drop is most likely to happen if temperatures are low (and the sun scarce) during the blossom stage, as well as during the early stages of fruit development. Climatic factors (late frosts, sudden changes in temperature or humidity) cause certain internal hormones to come into play, and before you know it, fruit production gets all out of whack. Another reason a tree might produce more fruit than it can sustain is prolific flowering and excess pollination. Again, the overproduction of fruit will cause the tree to release what it cannot sustain.

Fruit drop can also be a symptom that certain environmental factors are at work. Soil deficiencies, herbicide drift, improper nutrition, and irregular irrigation practices can all lead to fruit drop.

Fruit drop may also be pest related, although this is more likely to occur later in the season as fruits begin to near maturity.

Two things you can do to help prevent fruit drop:

1. Thin your fruit (or thin your blossoms). This will encourage your tree to put more energy into the fruit that remains.

2. Avoid unfavorable environmental conditions. Eliminate the use of herbicides and implement effective irrigation and fertilization programs (a soil test will alert you to any soil deficiencies).

Good luck!

Ellen


Most Recent Answer

By Sarah Leach05/01/2008

If your trees aren't getting enough water the fruit will dry up. Are you getting any ripe fruit? There's a happening called "June Drop" no one's figured out why, but trees just do it and usually in June but also as early as May and as late as July. This is normal. Like the tree is getting rid of excess fruit on it's own. If you're not getting fruit, I'd get a hold of your state's department of agriculture and see what they say. It may be something in your soil... either missing or in excess.
Good Luck!