spring or summer
dwarf types up to 1', standard types 8' to 10'
full sun to partial shade
average to rich, well-drained soil
thrives in zones 5 to 9
early spring to early summer
green leaves on semi-hard woody branches
shrub hedges, espaliers; good for inner city landscapes due to tolerance of poor growing conditions
Purchase plants or start with softwood cuttings from new growth in late spring or early summer, or semi-hardwood cuttings in mid to late summer. Plants can also be propagated over winter by layering. Simply make a small cut in a pencil thick branch and secure the branch (cut side down) to a pot filled with soil while it's still attached to the mother plant. Detach and transplant in spring when roots become established. To grow hedges, space plants 4 to 6 feet apart. Regular pruning is necessary to keep plants in bounds.
Forsythia flowers form on the previous year's growth so cut 1/3 of the shrubs older than 4 years to within 4 inches of the ground.
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