Every morning my husband has a sneezing fit and it's really loud and my two year old dog runs and hides and shakes really badly. We have had him since he was three months old and have never been mean to him.
You can condition him to get used to the sneezes by pretending to sneeze very gently, working up to full-force sneezes and giving him rewards for being calm. This is called behavior modification.
Maybe your husband and anyone else can try sneezing in their arm to lessen the sound. It's all about habit. I asked my Mom to do this because the high pitch would hurt my eardrum too.
No answer here, but when my husband coughs (not sneeze) it really really hurts my ears, dogs can hear so much better than us so I suppose it may be hurting your dogs ears.