Growing Sunflowers

Sunflowers are beautiful, easy to grow, and attract many kinds of birds to the garden. This is a guide about growing sunflowers.
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September 14, 2006 Flag

Sunflowers are perhaps the most cheerful and endearing native flower in the United States. For centuries, Native American tribes have harvested these versatile flowers for a variety of nutritional, medicinal and spiritual purposes. Today, they are grown on virtually every continent in the world. Here are some helpful hints for growing and harvesting your own.
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Easy-to-Plant & Grow

Sunflowers are one of the easiest garden crops to grow. They tolerate most soil types and their roots grow deep and spread wide, giving them the ability to withstand a fair amount of drought as well as tolerate any soil disturbance brought about by the cultivation of nearby crops. Seeds come in a variety of colors including black, white, red and black and white striped. Start seeds indoors in 4-inch peat pots or sow them directly into the soil. Plant them in a sunny position in soil that affords adequate drainage and has warmed to at least 45º F (preferably above 50ºF). For plant to develop fully flowering heads, avoid fertilizers high in nitrogen.

When purchasing seeds, keep in mind that most commercial varieties of sunflowers seeds are hybrids. This won't make a difference when consuming the seeds, but if your planning on collecting seed for future stock, look for heirloom varieties instead. Seeds should be planted at a depth of 2 inches and spaced 12 inches apart in rows spaced 24 inches apart. Tall varieties or those with extra large heads will need more space. Germination occurs quickly, usually within 7-10 days (often sooner). Most varieties reach maturity in 80-90 days.

The twenty-day period leading up to harvest is the most critical time in the development of sunflower seeds. Avoid placing water stress on plants during this time (either too much or too little) and keep soil moisture levels as consistent as possible.

Pests & Disease

Common Diseases: Watch for verticillium wilt, downy mildew, rust and white mold. As with most garden diseases, prevention is the best medicine. Good sanitation and cultivation techniques (e.g. crop rotation) will go along way toward warding off potential problems.

Non-Insect Pests: Birds and Squirrels love sunflower seeds as much as the gardeners that grow them. Because sunflower seeds mature right around the time these critters are gearing up for fall, your sunflower crop can quickly become ransacked if not protected. Cover sunflower heads with nylon stockings, cheesecloth or paper bags to make robbing the seeds more difficult. Avoid growing your sunflowers near fences or low buildings that offer quick access to squirrels.

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Insect Pests: Sunflower moths (the larvae), aphids and white flies are the primary insect pests to watch out for. Sunflowers need bees for pollination, so the use of chemical insecticides isn't recommended. Aphids and white flies can usually be kept under control by periodically spraying your sunflowers with a strong jet of water. Delaying planting until late May or early June will reduce the likelihood of sunflower moth problems.

Drying Flower Heads

To dry heads for floral displays, cut the heads (with the desired portion of stem attached ) just as they are starting to open. The heads will continue to open as they dry. Bind the stems together with a rubber band or soft string and hang them upside down in a warm, dark room to dry.

Harvesting Your Seeds

Seeds can be harvested while green or allowed to remain on the plant to ripen. Regardless of the variety, most sunflowers will tell you when their seeds are ready to be harvested. Their heads will stop tracking the sun and start bowing to the ground, the backs of their heads will turn a light yellow color, the florets in the center of the head will start to shrivel and when cracked open, the seeds will be plump with meat. Cut off heads along with a portion of the stems and hang them upside down to try. Cover the heads with paper bags or cheesecloth to catch any falling seeds. When seeds are dry, simply scrape them away from the head with a knife, or thrash them onto a sheet.

Roasting Your Seeds

To prepare seeds for roasting, cover unshelled seeds with a solution containing 1/4 to 1/2 cup of salt in 2 quarts of water and allow them to soak for 24 hours. Drain and spread out on an absorbent material to dry. Roast sunflower seeds on a cookie sheet or in a shallow pan at 300º F for 30 to 40 minutes or until golden brown. Optional: Add one teaspoon of butter to 1 cup of roasted seeds and salt to taste. Seeds intended for animal food can be stored immediately after drying in an airtight container.

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September 18, 20060 found this helpful

This sounds like fun...and requires a little more watchfulness.

I may try this IF the several varieties of seed I have are not too old. How old is too old? Can sunflowers be raised in a bale of hay? I have extra hay bales and have been collecting suggestions about growing things in it, and also in straight compost! Any ideas? God bless you.

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December 29, 2005 Flag

I feed all birds and they always leave me a gift of Sunflowers. I have hundreds of sunflowers, just from birdseed.

By PJ from Oklahoma

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December 3, 20090 found this helpful

I love sunflowers! I just don't seem 2 have any luck. I get them growing just 2 where they're gonna bloom n something happens. 1 year it was the rain. The next it was winds. I'm gonna try again next year. wish me luck, all.

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September 13, 2007 Flag

Sunflower

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Tips for growing sunflowers from the ThriftyFun community. Plant them in full sun. Plant seeds 1 inch deep and 6 inches apart (or according to package directions). Water well after planting.

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Questions

Ask a QuestionHere are the questions asked by community members. Read on to see the answers provided by the ThriftyFun community or ask a new question.

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April 9, 2012 Flag

Any tips for growing sunflowers?

By Billy

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April 10, 20120 found this helpful

Well, the obvious answer is full sun! We plant them near our barn so that they are sheltered from damaging wind, and make sure the soil is very loose and rich. A bumper crop every year!

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April 10, 20120 found this helpful

I agree, just lots of sun. Sunflowers are super easy, you shouldn't have a big problem.

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May 27, 2015 Flag

I have entered a competition to grow the tallest sunflower. At the moment it is three feet, but has started to come into flower. Will this stop the plant from growing taller?

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May 29, 20150 found this helpful

It will probably stop now. You will probably get more blooms and they will be a bit taller.

Here's a guide if you would like to try again: http://www.sunf  t-sunflower.html

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March 19, 2008 Flag

I'm trying to grow sunflower from seeds using cut plastic bottles and paper egg tray. These are the seedlings after 1 week. FYI, the seed package was written "Sunburst Mixed" and can grow as tall as 180 cm. Actually, I was looking for the kind that can grow about 3 feet height or less but couldn't find them. My questions are, why are they "bending" like that? Is it normal? What can I do to make them straight? Although some of them grow straight and are not bending like that. Should I move them to pots? I can't plant them out yet because they are so tiny, weak and will be destroyed by rain or wind. Any tips will be appreciated. Thanks before.


Hardiness Zone: 11

Susan from Surabaya, Indonesia

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March 19, 20080 found this helpful

From looking at the picture I would say that they are reaching for the sun. Do you have them in direct sunlight? As their name indicates they love the sun. Any plant that is spindly like the sunflowers in your picture need direct sunlight.. You may want to start over because the thin stems will not hold up a healthy plant.

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March 20, 20080 found this helpful

First of all it looks like you don't have any drainage holes in your "pots" and they are water logged and very sun deprived. They should be short, sturdy, and dark green. They need dryer soil and much much more light. I think you need to chuck these and start over.

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October 4, 2010 Flag

Are sunflowers perennials? Do they re-grow each year or do you have to plant new seeds every year?

Hardiness Zone: 6a

By Mark from Birmingham, MI

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October 5, 20100 found this helpful

While most sunflowers are annuals and the seeds have to be replanted every year, there ARE some very similar to sunflowers that are perennials, depending on the SIZE that you want. Check out by googling or ask etc to ask what is similar to sunflowers but are perennials. I know that helleniums (I am not sure of the spelling), and I think Mullins are similar, if you want tall ones. But if you want true sunflowers, you must plant every year! (But they are sure worth it in beauty!)

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October 9, 20100 found this helpful

Sunflowers are annuals, but do self-seed! Mulliens look like overgrown Foxglove, are annuals too, and also self-seed prolifically. They are not nearly as pretty as sunflowers, and can be quite invasive and do only come in yellow! Helleniums are family members and some are perennials. There are so many beautiful Sunflowers, it is just fun to plant different colors/versions each year. They are varied from creamy whites, to beautiful deep burgundies, even multi-colored!

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February 28, 2015 Flag

How do you grow sunflower seeds?

By Kristina K.

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August 6, 2006 Flag

Question:

I raised Mammoth Sunflowers this year, and they were beautiful. I would like to try to do it for a living, what spray should I use for the bugs that get into the seeds?

Hardiness Zone: 9b

Marcia from Alturas, FL

Answer:

Marcia,

There are a couple of different insects that specifically go after the seeds on sunflower plants. One is the Sunflower Seed Weevil (the Red or Gray variety), and the other is the Sunflower Midge.

In the larvae stage, Sunflower Seed Weevils have cream or yellow colored bodies that are legless and c-shaped. The larvae usually emerge in mid to late summer to feed on the seeds. There are several non-chemical methods used by commercial growers here in the Midwest to control the weevils. They include yearly crop rotation, early planting, fall plowing to destroy over wintering larvae and trap cropping.

If you're are not familiar with the term, trap cropping is planting a border consisting of a row or two of "bait" sunflowers around the perimeter of your main sunflower crop. These "bait" sunflowers should be planted so they bloom 10-14 days ahead of the rest of your crop. The emerging larvae will naturally migrate toward the first sunflowers that bloom and produce pollen. When they become concentrated in one area of the field, it is easier and more economical to manage them. When your trap crop becomes infested with weevils, you can then spray them with the appropriate chemical control. What you spray will depend on whether or not you're going to sell the sunflowers as cut flowers, or for consumption by animals, etc. Laws regarding insecticide use on commercial flowers can vary from state to state, so I would contact your local county extension agency for more information on the rules governing the commercial growing and selling of sunflowers in Florida.

The Sunflower Midge larva has a small (0.07 inch) cream colored body that is tapered to the front and rear. The larvae emerge in early July to feed on the sunflowers' developing heads and seeds.

Most conventional insecticides are not effective against the Sunflower Midge, because the larvae crawl inside the seed soon after hatching so they are protected from topically applied chemicals. By delaying planting until late May or early June, you can significantly reduce the amount of crop loss due to midge damage. Again, your country extension agent should be able to give you more detailed advice on controlling these pests in your area.

Good luck!
Ellen

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August 7, 20060 found this helpful

Cover them with panty hose.

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August 7, 20060 found this helpful

I agree with the panty hose. Please don't use any sprays, because some of beautiful song birds may eat the seeds or the bugs.

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July 12, 2005 Flag

My sunflower just keeps growing! The head hasn't come out yet and I am wondering if there is anything I should do to ensure that the head gets big as well. I've tied it up loosely to the garage so it won't fall over.

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July 17, 20050 found this helpful

hi when my kids were in school we grew sunflowers that were 13-14 feet high...the flower will follow...don't worry

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July 28, 20050 found this helpful

It looks like a "maximimus", or something similar to that name...lol

We grow regular sunflowers by the acre here and we just use ferilizers, 10-10-10.

But in my small gardens and flower beds i plant these also and i use the above fertilizer and every now and then a dose of the liquid for flowers. And the heads get so big and heavy if it is not tied to something it will bend and break.

But yours looks like it is gonna be a normal size head. This is what you want.

Will you post a picture of it when it does bloom???

I am a sunflower fanatic....lol.

~kat

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September 4, 2007 Flag

Why my sunflowers turn brown from top to bottom as soon as they start to bloom?

Hardiness Zone: 7b

Glavern from N.C.

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September 6, 20070 found this helpful

I would think it is from the heat and drought we are having as I am in Greensboro, NC. Sunflowers are very hardy and easy to grow. Better luck you next year!

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August 9, 2013 Flag

My 8 foot sunflower has 4 buds appearing on it. Should I remove 2 of them to give it a chance of flowering? It has been 3 weeks and the other ones are all blooming.

By Jax

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July 11, 2013 Flag

This is my first time growing sunflowers. The one that is the farthest along is so big, it is drooping almost all the way to the ground. Am I supposed to stake it? Am I supposed to continue to water it? Thanks.

By Renee M.

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June 22, 2013 Flag

My sunflowers have started to bloom, but the are not lasting long before they die. What can I use on them? Some of the leaves are big, but don't have any buds on them. What's wrong? I water them everyday sometimes even twice a day.

By Pamela T.

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September 29, 2012 Flag

How many leaves should a sunflower have if it is more than one month old?

By Eunel from Philippines

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September 29, 2012 Flag

My brother said that the poop of African worms is organic and in their school they have something like a pig pen, 3 meters wide and 2 meters tall and inside of that is full of soil and African worms. Every month their teacher harvests the poop using it like soil for planting. My brother got some and put it in our backyard. I got some of it and put it on my sunflower; is it good or what?

By Eunel from Philippines

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July 12, 2011 Flag

The plant has two or more sucker flowers heads. Should I cut them out or trim the bottom leaves?

By Erik

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Photos

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August 22, 2013 Flag

Photo Description
I captured these photos of a goldfinch eating the sunflower seeds from our flowers in our front garden. I took the pictures from inside looking through our glass doors.

Photo Location
Maryville, TN

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July 8, 2015 Flag

Photo Description
I tried to grow these 20 years ago, but a big storm took them away. Now I have been growing the biggest I have ever seen for the last two years. I love watching them grow; it is fabulous.

Photo Location
Scottsdale, AZ

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August 12, 2012 Flag

I captured these photos of the bees on our sunflowers busy pollinating the flowers.

By lovingnature from TN

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June 13, 2006 Flag

Sunflowers With Bees

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I have found feeding your flowers with a nice solution of plant food makes your blooms look wonderful. . .

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