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Is this piece of bedroom furniture called an armoire, chifforobe, bureau, or something else? I can't find a design like this.
It is indeed a chifferobe. Wiki: A chifforobe (/frob/) is a closet-like piece of furniture that combines a long space for hanging clothes (that is, a wardrobe or armoire) with a chest of drawers. Typically the wardrobe section runs down one side of the piece, while the drawers occupy the other side.
Beautiful piece of furniture. It seems most definitions of armoire, chifforobe and wardrobe are pretty much the same but most lean toward calling an item like this an armoire because it does not not have a wardrobe.
A local antique dealer said this could have been intended for a linen press as this style was often used to store linens (and many times had a pull out shelf like your item) and was used in a formal dining room/area.
He also said the french sometimes called this style a men's armoire as most men's items were folded (even shirts) and placed in drawers or on shelves.
It seems a chifforobe generally always has a rod for hanging clothes (either top/side) and gets part of its name from "wardrobe". As wardrobe always seem to mean "hanging" area.
Here is an except from a furniture appraiser (from Antique Road show): Both the armoire and the chifforobe are tall, wooden, stand-alone cupboards featuring shelves for storage. They can be moved around as needed, unlike a traditional closet.
If you need a professional opinion as to the style or value you can get a free appraisal from several well known auction houses. Be sure to give them as much information as you can find - such as; markings on back or under drawers - dimensions - and any other information such as how it became in your possession - parents/purchase (when and where) with dates/city/state.
One of your pieces with the two door looks like a chifferobe. The other piece looks more like a shoe rack. I can find antique chifferobe that look like the one in the front.
I believe the photo attached is when the furniture is closed and opened.
This bedroom furniture looks like a short armoire.